Sewage sludge is the product resulting from wastewater treatment plants and aquaculture systems. It is an abundant waste biomass, as its production keeps increasing due to population growth, particularly in developing countries and intensified wastewater treatment plants in the developed world due to industrialisation. Effective management and handling of sewage sludge in an environmentally friendly way has become a matter of increasing importance globally, due to the potential health risks on the environment. Importantly, sewage sludge contains large amounts of organic components and nutrients; hence, resource recovery from such an abundant biomass is necessary. This comprehensive book presents an assessment into the impact of sewage sludge on the environment and provides the various treatment options for converting the sludge into useful resources. Biochemical (or biological) and thermochemical (or thermal) methods of sewage sludge treatment are covered. Through contributions from experts in diverse fields, this book has been organized to suit a variety of readers, including professionals and students who are interested in sewage sludge treatment as well as resource recovery from sewage sludge by using different and innovative technologies.